Schools, Colleges and
Universities of the Philippines
Philippine Education Overview
Administration and Finance:
The Department of Education, Culture and
Sports (DECS) is the principal government agency responsible for education
and manpower development.
The department is primarily responsible for the formulation,
planning, implementation and co-ordination of the policies, standards,
regulations, plans, programmes and projects in areas of formal and
non-formal education at all levels. It also supervises all education
institutions, both public and private.
The Department of Education has six bureaus under its control:
Elementary Education, Secondary Education, Higher Education, Non-Formal
Education, Technical and Vocational Education, and Physical Education and
The Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE) is responsible for providing
access and quality elementary education and focuses on social services for
the poor and directs public resources and efforts at socially
disadvantaged regions and specific groups.
The Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE) is responsible for providing
access and quality secondary education. It is responsible for establishing
secondary schools where there are none, and reviews the overall structure
of secondary education as regards curriculum, facilities, and teachers’
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) is an entity separate from the
DECS. It is responsible for
both public and private institutions of higher education as well as
degree-granting programmes at all postsecondary educational institutions.
The national government is authorized by the Constitution and State policy
to contribute to the financial support of educational programmes. Public
elementary schools, national secondary schools, vocational and technical
schools, and chartered and non-chartered tertiary institutions are funded
primarily from national funds.
Local governments are encouraged to assume responsibility for
non-national public schools. Private schools throughout the country are
funded from capital investments, equity contributions, and tuition fees
and other school charges, grants, loans, etc.
National and local governments may also contribute to the
operation of private institutions.
There are approximately 51,000 educational
institutions, public and private, at all levels of education in the
Philippines providing instruction to over 20,000,000 students.
- Education is offered through
formal and non-formal systems. The number of years of formal schooling in
the Philippines is one of the shortest in the world.
The educational ladder has a 6+4+4 structure, (i.e., six years of
elementary education, four years of secondary education, and four years of
higher education for a degree programme), except for some higher education
programmes which require a longer period of study to complete a degree.
- Pre-school education is optional; some
private organizations and some public schools offer nursery and
kindergarten classes. Some private exclusive schools offer seven years of
elementary education, while others require pre-school or kindergarten
education for admission.
- There are two types of secondary school
according to curricular offerings: the general high school and vocational
high school. General high schools offer the four-year general academic
secondary curriculum while vocational high schools offer the same
secondary curriculum with additional vocational courses. A regional
science high school is established in each of the country’s regions.
Science high schools offer an enriched Science, Mathematics, and English
curriculum in addition to requirements of the New Secondary Education
Curriculum (NESC), which was established in 1992-93.
- Education at the higher level is
comprised of degree and non-degree programmes. Postsecondary or
technical/vocational courses are non-creditable to degree programmes and
these cover one month to three years of schooling. The higher education or
degree programmes normally require at least four years of schooling.
Non-formal education is an alternative delivery system, designed primarily
for out-of-school youth and adults and focused on developing literacy and
employable or productive skills and citizenship training.
- (Source: Facts and Figures ’97,
Department of Education, Culture and Sports)
Private and Public Education
The private sector is a major provider of
educational services in the Philippines. Approximately 7.5% of primary
students are enrolled in private institutions, 32% of secondary students,
and 80% of tertiary level students.
The academic year consists of 200 working
days and extends from the first Monday in June through middle to late
Teachers in public and private elementary
schools must have earned at least a bachelor’s degree in elementary
education. Secondary school teachers are expected to have earned a
bachelor’s degree in secondary education with specialization (major or
minors) in secondary school subjects.
Both degrees must be earned in approved teacher education courses
at recognized institutions.
All teaching degree programmes are four years in length. Non-education
graduates may complete an 18-unit Certificate of Professional Education
programme in order to qualify as primary or secondary teachers. After
completion of these programmes, the students are required to take the
Philippine Board Examination for Teachers to qualify them to teach both in
the elementary and secondary levels.
Source: World Education Services.